Tag Archives: U.S. Department of Labor

The Department of Labor Goes to Church – Tips for Employers with Charitable Components

Adam Gersh Provides Tips for Employers with Charitable ComponentsThe U.S. Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit sided with a church operating the Lord’s Buffet and against the Department of Labor (“DOL”) in a case testing the reach of the Fair Labor Standards Act (“FLSA”). In Acosta v. Cathedral Buffet, Inc., the appellate court reversed a trial court ruling and held that volunteers who staffed a church-operated buffet are not employees and the Grace Cathedral Church did not run afoul of the FLSA by failing to pay the volunteers minimum wage.  The DOL claimed the church and its televangelist pastor illegally used unpaid labor by staffing its buffet with volunteers from the congregation.  In this case, the church operated the buffet restaurant for a religious purpose: to allow church members to proselytize to patrons.  Its operations relied heavily on church volunteers who worked alongside paid employees performing the same work. While the work performed was comparable to that of an employee, the Sixth Circuit held the DOL overstepped the bounds of the FLSA by applying it to the volunteer workforce.  In part, the Court’s decision relied on a determination that the volunteers had no expectation of payment and were not economically reliant on the work of the church.  

Savvy employer takeaways: Employers with charitable missions and those who support charities must be careful to delineate work from volunteer activities to avoid claims that the volunteers should have been paid for their activities.

Questions? Let me know.

 

Independent Contractor or Employee? The DOL Weights In.

The U.S. Department of Labor is offering its two cents on the big dollar distinction between employees and independent contractors, and it is saying, “most workers are employees under the FLSA’s broad definitions.”   This new advice is consistent with DOL’s continuing campaign to “crack down” on what it deems misclassification of employees as independent contractors  and is important because determining whether an individual is an independent contractor or an employee is one of the most vexing issues employers face, in large part because getting wrong can be so costly.

The DOL’s position is set forth in Administrator’s Interpretation No. 2015-1, released on July 15, 2015, and issued by David Weil, Administrator of the Department of Labor’s Wage and Hour Division (WHD).  The snappy title of the Interpretation is “The Application of the Fair Labor Standards Act’s ‘Suffer or Permit’ Standard in the Identification of Employees Who Are Misclassified as Independent Contractors.”  While the Interpretation does not overtly change DOL policy and is not per se binding on employers or the courts, employers should evaluate their classifications based on this guidance and see how they measure up.  

In support of its conclusion that most workers are employees, the Interpretation focuses on the so-called “economic realities test” (one of the tests used to determine whether a worker is an employee).  The economic realities test, as its name suggests, focuses heavily on the extent to which a worker is economically dependent on the employer – the greater the dependence , the more likely the worker will be found to be an employee. The test examines six factors: 

  1. The nature and degree of the alleged employer’s control as to the manner in which the work is to be performed;
  2. The alleged employee’s opportunity for profit or loss depending upon his or her managerial skill;
  3. The alleged employee’s investment in equipment or materials required for his task, or his or her employment of workers;
  4. Whether the service rendered requires a special skill;
  5. The degree of permanency and duration of the working relationship; and
  6. The extent to which the service rendered is an integral part of the employer’s business.

In this latest guidance, the DOL emphasizes the sixth factor – whether the work is “integral to the business” of the employer.  The Interpretation advocates applying the “integral to the business” prong  through the lens of the FLSA’s definition of the term “employ” (which means to “suffer or permit to work,” 29 U.S.C. § 203(g)) in a way that  broadly construes a worker’s contributions to the business of the employer as integral.

Although this Interpretation is not controlling on the courts, our Supreme Court has recognized that Administrator’s Interpretations reflect a body of experience and informed judgment to which courts and litigants may properly resort for guidance.  Employers also should keep in mind that, while the Interpretation is limited to the independent contractor classification under the FLSA, other federal and state statutes and regulations also govern the classification of employees in relation to taxes, workers compensation coverage, unemployment insurance, and other issues.  Employers obviously need to consider all applicable laws, regulations and guidance when determining whether to classify a worker as an independent contractor, but, in light of this Interpretation should:

  • Evaluate job descriptions and duties to determine whether they are likely to be deemed “integral to the business”;
  • Analyze whether the work independent contractors are performing goes beyond the scope of their stated duties and could be considered integral; and
  • Assess whether workers currently treated as employees may be considered independent contractors due to the non-integral nature of their work.

Questions? Let me know.

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